Hier wird die gesamte Geschichte und Entwicklung der NFL zusammengefasst. Von der damaligen Entstehung bis zum heutigen Multimillionen Unternehmen. Wer ist der beste Spieler in der NFL-Geschichte? Unsere ran-Experten Roman Motzkus, Volker Schenk und Patrick Esume haben ihre Top 5 zusammengestellt. Die Washington Redskins holen gegen die Tampa Bay Buccaneers einen Flynn would add a veteran presence for second-year quarterback Jimmy Garoppolo for four games due to the suspension of Tom Brady. In Tokio traten in einem Vorbereitungsspiel die damaligen St. Archived nordkorea stadion the original on Eine Nachfrage an zusätzlichen Spielen gab es kaum, zumal College Football traditionell im Herbst gespielt wird, und Endspiele wie der Slot machine game crossword Bowl zum Jahreswechsel stattfinden. The rules were updated several times during the s casino zu verkaufen accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs. Syracuse, with Glen Pop Warner at guard, won and went on to win the tournament. A group of aborigines playing a ball game in Guiana. Green BayWI. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. Infollowing a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Australian open results Rugby Football Union NRFU. Deze pagina is voor het laatst casino royale stream kkiste op 20 sep om Retrieved 28 September
Wanneer dit bekend is trapt het verdedigende team de bal vanaf de yardlijn 32 meter naar de andere kant van het veld. Dit wordt de kick-off genoemd.
Het aanvallende team vangt de bal en probeert zo veel mogelijk terreinwinst te maken door met de bal richting de end zone van de tegenstander te lopen, totdat het door het verdedigende team gestopt wordt.
Vanaf dit punt beginnen de aanvalspogingen. Het aanvallende team heeft steeds vier pogingen om minstens 10 yard terreinwinst te maken in de richting van de tegenstander.
Wanneer het aanvallende team erin slaagt 10 yards of meer terreinwinst te maken, krijgt het team opnieuw vier pogingen. Dit gaat zo door totdat het aanvallende team scoort of totdat het verdedigende team de bal onderschept.
Wanneer het aanvallende team er niet in slaagt binnen vier downs 10 yard terreinwinst te maken, dan verliest het team de bal.
Wanneer het aanvallende team de bal verliest worden de rollen omgedraaid. De groep met aanvallende spelers verlaat het veld en voor hen komt de groep met verdedigende spelers van hetzelfde team het veld op.
Het tegenovergestelde geldt voor de tegenstander die de verdedigende groep spelers wisselt voor de aanvallende groep spelers.
In specifieke situaties bijvoorbeeld een field goalpoging of een kick-off worden bepaalde type spelers opgesteld. Er zijn zeven soorten spelers:.
American football ontwikkelde zich in de negentiende eeuw als een variant op het Engelse rugby. Rutgers won die eerste wedstrijd met In werd de eerste betaalde prof ingehuurd en in werd de American Professional Football Association gevormd.
De eerste wedstrijd werd op 2 oktober gespeeld in Dayton , Ohio tussen de Triangles en de Columbus Panhandles. De thuisspelende Triangles wonnen met 14—0.
Het gemiddelde bezoekersaantal per wedstrijd is Ter vergelijking, de Duitse Bundesliga voetbal trekt gemiddeld Omdat er minder wedstrijden gespeeld worden in NFL dan bij de andere balsporten in de Verenigde Staten is het totale aantal bezoekers per seizoen met List of sports attendance figures.
Elke conferentie telt vier divisies, bestaande uit elk vier teams. In totaal doen dus 32 teams mee in de strijd om de titel.
Op de kalender staan 16 wedstrijden in het reguliere seizoen plus eventuele voor een team play-offwedstrijden. Om verzekerd te zijn van de play-offs dient een team de divisie te winnen of in ieder geval tot de zes beste teams van de conferentie te behoren.
Sinds een aantal jaar wordt eenzelfde systeem gehanteerd, namelijk: De twee hoogst geplaatste teams per conferentie zijn de eerste play-offronde vrij dit wordt een 'bye' genoemd.
De overige vier teams spelen voor een plaats in de volgende ronde tegen deze ploegen. Het hoogst geplaatste team gebaseerd op de stand van het reguliere seizoen speelt altijd tegen het laagst geplaatste team in de play-offs en heeft tevens het thuisvoordeel.
De 'wild-card' teams zijn dan automatisch nummer 5 en 6. De andere tiebreaker is de balans binnen de divisie. De uiteindelijke finale, de Super Bowl , vindt plaats begin februari.
Dit evenement wordt bekeken door bijna een derde van de Amerikaanse bevolking. Buiten de VS kijken er zo'n 6 miljoen mensen naar deze finale geschat aantal.
Tussen de 10 best bekeken programma's ooit in de VS staan 6 superbowls. In de VS kan de coach van een team aan de hoofdscheidsrechter vragen om zijn beslissing te herzien op basis van televisiebeelden.
In de praktijk aanvaarden de coaches meestal de beslissingen van de scheidsrechters. Al in spelen twee Amerikaanse universiteitsteams een demonstratiewedstrijd in het Amsterdamse Olympisch Stadion.
Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal.
The earliest historical account is an anecdote from the book by Robert Brough-Smyth , The Aborigines of Victoria , in which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about in Victoria, Australia , that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: Games played in Mesoamerica with rubber balls by indigenous peoples are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to basketball or volleyball , and no links have been found between such games and modern football sports.
Northeastern American Indians, especially the Iroquois Confederation, played a game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although it is a ball-goal foot game, lacrosse as its modern descendant is called is likewise not usually classed as a form of "football.
These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England.
Ancient Greek athlete balancing a ball on his thigh. A Song dynasty painting by Su Hanchen c. Paint of a Mesoamerican ballgame player of the Tepantitla murals in Teotihuacan.
A revived version of kemari being played at the Tanzan Shrine , Japan. An illustration from the s of Australian Aboriginal hunter gatherers.
Children in the background are playing a game, possibly Woggabaliri. A group of aborigines playing a ball game in Guiana. The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England.
An early reference to a ball game played in Britain comes from the 9th century Historia Brittonum , which describes "a party of boys The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as " mob football ", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse ,  struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal's bladder  to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes.
The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about — He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:.
After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls.
Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball".
This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked.
An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from at Ulgham , Northumberland, England: In , Nicholas de Farndone , Lord Mayor of the City of London issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time.
A game known as "football" was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in some references cite which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball.
The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" strike it here and later "repercute pilam" strike the ball again in the original Latin.
It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race.
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed.
One sentence states in the original translation "Throw yourself against him" Age, objice te illi. King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", in , when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball".
There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire. This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as " calcio storico " "historic kickball" in the Piazza Santa Croce.
The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football.
For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise.
This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January until it was revived in May There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day.
The first such law was passed in England in ; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between and Women were banned from playing at English and Scottish Football League grounds in , a ban that was only lifted in the s.
Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world. While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools equivalent to private schools in other countries are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes.
First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport.
Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools. Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools.
Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" or "carrying" games first became clear.
The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".
Richard Mulcaster , a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football".
Mulcaster's writings refer to teams "sides" and "parties" , positions "standings" , a referee "judge over the parties" and a coach " trayning maister ".
Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:. In , David Wedderburn , a teacher from Aberdeen , mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula.
Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players "drive that man back".
A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby 's Book of Games , written in about The gates are called Goals. He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness".
He is the first to describe a "law" of football: English public schools were the first to codify football games. In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century.
Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation.
However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby , Harrow and Cheltenham , during between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.
They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force.
Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.
Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.
Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham , while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.
The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters , making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.
William Webb Ellis , a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.
This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.
The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory,  the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.
The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.
Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.
The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.
The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc.
The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.
Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below.
Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of , which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children.
Before , many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.
Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the midth century and ceased playing matches in The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh , Scotland, during the period — In , three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school.
These were the first set of written rules or code for any form of football. One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup , contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football , although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.
The South Australian Football Association 30 April is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.
The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5, at the Oval under the authority of the FA.
The first Rugby international took place in In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders , more specifically pig's bladders , which were inflated.
Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.
In , the U. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons see truncated icosahedron did not become popular until the s, and was first used in the World Cup in The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen , Scotland.
Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called"  Passing was a regular feature of their style  By early the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together"  A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March , the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: In , at Cambridge University , Mr.
Thring , who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School , called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge , with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury.
An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa is held in the library of Shrewsbury School.
Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal.
The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football.
By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. Sheffield Football Club , founded in in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.
The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule. The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football.
These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar. Nach den derzeitigen Regeln darf eine Mannschaft nie mehr als 90 Spieler unter Vertrag haben.
Aktiv und Inaktiv werden für jedes Spiel neu bestimmt und regelt welche spielberechtigten Spieler auflaufen dürfen. Derzeit dürfen maximal 46 Spieler als aktiv und sieben als inaktiv markiert werden.
Maximal zehn Spieler dürfen Mitglied des Practice Squads sein. Unter Reserve werden Spieler aufgeführt, die verletzt sind, vom Profifootball zurückgetreten sind oder militärischen Dienst leisten.
Diese Spieler dürfen nach ihrer Platzierung in der Reserve, mit Ausnahme von einem Spieler, während der laufenden Saison nicht wieder eingesetzt werden.
Wenn eine Mannschaft sich für das Heimrecht in den Playoffs qualifiziert hat, werden in den letzten Liga-Spielen oft die Stammspieler geschont und Niederlagen in Kauf genommen, wie etwa bei den Indianapolis Colts.
Erstmals verloren die Detroit Lions alle 16 Spiele und stellten damit einen Negativrekord auf. Die Ehrungen werden nicht durch die Liga und deren Mannschaften, sondern auch durch die amerikanische Sportpresse sowie ehemalige und aktive Spieler ausgesprochen.
Die meisten der verfügbaren Spieler sind "Seniors", haben also volle vier Jahre an einer Universität verbracht und sind deshalb für den College Football nicht mehr spielberechtigt.
Dies müssen sie bis zu einem Stichtag im Vorfeld des Draft bekanntgeben, eine Rückkehr zum College Football ist dann allerdings ausgeschlossen.
Dies dient dem Schutz des universitären Spielbetriebs und auch derjenigen Spieler, die ihre Ausbildung für eine mögliche Profi-Karriere opfern würden.
In jeder der über zwei Tage verteilten sieben Runden dürfen die Teams, beginnend mit dem schlechtesten des Vorjahres, einen Spieler benennen, dem ein millionenschwerer Vertrag winkt.
Manchmal tauschen die Clubs aber auch vorhandene Spieler oder Draft-Rechte untereinander, wobei schon mehrere bewährte Spieler gegen Nachwuchstalente getauscht wurden, welche die Erwartungen dann nicht erfüllen konnten.
Dabei ist zu beachten, dass die Teams nicht beliebig hohe Gehälter für ihre Spieler zahlen dürfen, die Gesamthöhe der Gehaltsliste ist begrenzt Salary Cap.
Die Auswahl in den späteren Runden erfährt in der Regel weniger Aufmerksamkeit. Wer nach dem Abschluss des Drafts nicht ausgewählt wurde, darf sich als Free Agent bei jedem beliebigen Team bewerben.
Vor Beginn der eigentlichen Footballsaison spielt jedes Team vier Testspiele preseason game , inoffiziell auch exhibition game.
Stammspieler kommen in diesen Spielen kaum zum Einsatz, um Verletzungen zu verhindern. Die reguläre Saison beginnt Anfang September.
Die beiden restlichen Spieltage sind Duellen innerhalb der Conference vorbehalten, und zwar gegen die Teams aus den beiden verbleibenden Divisionen, die in der letzten Saison in ihrer Division auf demselben Platz abgeschnitten haben.
Somit ist der Spielplan jeder Mannschaft anders. Die Gesamtstärke der Gegner wird jedoch berücksichtigt, wenn bei der Qualifikation für die Play-offs zwei Teams gleiche Bilanzen haben, aber nicht im direkten Vergleich aufeinandergetroffen sind.
Ende gab es Überlegungen die Saison um einen oder zwei Spieltage zu erweitern; wobei es sehr konkrete Gespräche zwischen den Besitzern der Teams einerseits und dem Management der NFL andererseits gab, worin bereits mehrere Szenarien durchgesprochen wurden.
Im Sommer wurde beschlossen, so lange bei der aktuellen Regelung zu bleiben, bis der gesamte Zyklus einmal durchlaufen wurde.
Ein Zyklus bedeutet, dass die Teams aller Ligen in alle möglichen Kombinationen gegen die Teams aus allen anderen Ligen gespielt haben.
Die Qualifizierung für die Endrunde wird aus historischen Gründen weiterhin in AFC und NFC getrennt durchgeführt, auch wenn so nicht immer die insgesamt zwölf besten Teams weiterkommen.
Jeweils sechs Teams qualifizieren sich für die Play-offs. Der Super Bowl findet am ersten Sonntag im Februar statt. Meistens handelt es sich dabei um einen Quarterback , Runningback oder Wide Receiver.
Diese Zählung hat sich in der Berichterstattung durchgesetzt und wird auch offiziell von den Vereinen und der Liga benutzt.
Die Nominierung der Spieler erfolgt durch Abstimmungen unter Fans, welche jeweils die ersten elf Spieler von Offense und Defense nominieren, und Journalisten, welche den Kader auffüllen.
Seit der Saison findet er eine Woche vor dem Super Bowl statt. Nach Möglichkeit trägt er die gleiche Trikotnummer wie in seinem eigenen Team.
Die Head Coaches werden ebenfalls von den jeweiligen Conferences nominiert und tragen traditionell entsprechend rote oder blaue Hawaiihemden.
Seit der Saison sollte der Pro Bowl an immer wechselnden Orten stattfinden, doch bereits zur Saison fand er wieder auf Hawaii statt. Die NFL Europe zuletzt: Sie diente einerseits der Ausbildung und Sichtung junger amerikanischer Spieler und versuchte andererseits, den Sport sowie die NFL in Europa bekannt zu machen.
Entsprechend wurde der Spielbetrieb komplett durch die NFL finanziert. Sowohl ihre Struktur als auch die teilnehmenden Mannschaften wechselten häufig.Everson Griffen vor Comeback gegen Saints ran. Beste Spielothek in Achterhörn finden Du kannst helfen! Saints überrollen die Redskins ran. Wir haben die wichtigsten Szenen der Sonntagsspiele in 62 Sekunden zusammengefasst. Wie schlagen sich die deutschen Spieler in der NFL? Und inzwischen klingt die Mischung verdächtig nach Super Bowl. Nur eins verpasste er gegen die Lions: Auch liegt sein Augenmerk darauf, dass Gehirnerschütterungen bei den Spielern vermindert bzw. Der parship hamburg adresse Super Bowl. Manziel trotzdem zufrieden ran. Dies ging allerdings zwischen den Bears und Spartans ebenfalls unentschieden aus. New Orleans , LA. Quarterback wird auch in Week 10 spielen Anekdoten über Nick Mullens: Bruce Arians, eigentlich im Ruhestand hat jetzt sein Interesse bekundet. Paul brachte bereits im August ,  also während der Vorbereitungen zur Gründung der AFL hatte die NFL die Erweiterung um zwei Mannschaften angekündigt , sondern es entstand auch ein harter Kampf um die besten Nachwuchsspieler, der mit deutlichen Gehaltsteigerungen der Profis einherging. Nummer 5 und 6 Ein wichtige Unterteilung wird nochmals unter den vier Erstplatzierten gemacht. Statistiken, die zeigen, dass Brees auf einem nimmermüden Höhepunkt seines Schaffens immer noch numerische Abnormitäten im positivsten Sinne vollbringen kann. Ein Spielbetrieb, bei dem jeder gegen jeden antreten muss, wie es in europäischen Ligen üblich ist, erfolgt lediglich innerhalb der jeweiligen Divisionen. Das hatte zur Folge, dass kein klarer Gewinner der Meisterschaft für die Saison bestimmt werden konnte da dieser Fall bisher nicht vorgesehen war in den Regeln. Das System Ich erwähnte zu Beginn des Artikels das System aus 32 Teams in zwei sogenannten Conferences, welche wiederum aus je vier Divisionen bestehen. Bei den Namen der Spender sind die Fans kreativ. Wann kommt Dirk Nowitzki endlich zurück? Es schneite allerdings so stark und war auch dementsprechend kalt, dass die Liga beschloss das Spiel in das Chicago Stadium zu verlegen. Clark Hunt et al. Die beiden restlichen Spieltage sind Duellen innerhalb der Conference vorbehalten, und zwar gegen die Teams aus den beiden verbleibenden Divisionen, die in der letzten Saison in ihrer Division auf demselben Platz abgeschnitten haben. Zwei andere Passgeber stehen vor Scherbenhaufen.
At the Massasoit convention, the first rules for American football were written. Walter Camp, who would become known as the father of American football, first became involved with the game.
In an era in which football was a major attraction of local athletic clubs, an intense competition between two Pittsburgh-area clubs, the Allegheny Athletic Association AAA and the Pittsburgh Athletic Club PAC , led to the making of the first professional football player.
The Pittsburgh Athletic Club signed one of its players, probably halfback Grant Dibert, to the first known pro football contract, which covered all of the PAC's games for the year.
The Allegheny Athletic Association team fielded the first completely professional team for its abbreviated two-game season.
The Latrobe Athletic Association football team went entirely professional, becoming the first team to play a full season with only professionals. Chris O'Brien formed a neighborhood team, which played under the name the Morgan Athletic Club, on the south side of Chicago.
The team remains the oldest continuing operation in pro football. Temple took over the team payments for the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club, becoming the first known individual club owner.
Baseball's Philadelphia Athletics, managed by Connie Mack, and the Philadelphia Phillies formed professional football teams, joining the Pittsburgh Stars in the first attempt at a pro football league, named the National Football League.
All three teams claimed the pro championship for the year, but the league president, Dave Berry, named the Stars the champions. New York and Syracuse played the first indoor football game before 3,, December Syracuse, with Glen Pop Warner at guard, won and went on to win the tournament.
Pro football was popularized in Ohio when the Massillon Tigers, a strong amateur team, hired four Pittsburgh pros to play in the season-ending game against Akron.
The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.
A significant redraft in by H. Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club 's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes.
It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.
The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.
During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.
In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.
The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.
Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham.
In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.
However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.
The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.
If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.
At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F.
Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.
After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.
The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association". The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.
However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.
The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.
As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.
For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.
Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.
The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.
The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.
In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.
One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.
Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.
On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.
It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.
On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.
In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.
Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.
President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.
Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.
Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.
In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.
In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.
One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.
Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.
Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.
The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.
The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.
Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.
This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.
In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.
The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.
The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.
Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.
The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.
The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.
It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.
Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.
However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.
During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.
The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.
In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.
In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.
Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.
Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region. So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it.
In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.
In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.
The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.
Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.
The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'. These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.
They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target. These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.
Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports. This article is about the overall concept of games called football.
For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.
Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games. Origins of Australian rules football. The first football international, Scotland versus England.
Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. History of rugby union. History of Gaelic football. History of rugby league.
Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.
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